The Fribourg
Management Model for Nonprofit-Organizations (FMM)


Nonprofit-Organizations rely on modern management just like every other organization - the slogan «nonprofit but management» accurately paraphrases the idea behind this model.


Nonprofit-Organizations emerge because both market and state can fail to supply certain goods or because people have certain needs such as social integration, political, cultural or charitable activities which can only be satisfied in or by such organizations.


These include trade and employee associations, chambers, cooperatives, societies, churches, foundations, political parties or social, philanthropic, cultural or similar organizations.


As these organizations lack financial control indicators such as turnover or profit, managing them is particularly challenging.


The VMI’s experience shows that in order to reach their basic goal, i.e. to satisfy their members’ and customers’ needs, NPOs need to rely on efficient management.


The Fribourg Management Model for NPO and its extension volumes provide a systematic introduction to the topic of nonprofit management. Its holistic approach conveys both the basics and offers a framework for understanding NPO management challengesand their solutions.


This comprehensive management model was developed in 1986/87 as a conceptual basis fort he postgraduate course (PGL) in associations and nonprofit management and continuously extended. In was first published as a book in 1995. A 2nd edition followed in 1996 and a 3rd in 1999. Fall 2002 witnessed the considerably extended 4th edition and the updated 5th edition followed in 2005. In 2009, the 6th edition was published.


The model serves as a conceptual framework for all of the VMI’s courses.