The Fribourg Management Model
for Nonprofit Organizations (FMM)

Nonprofit organisations rely on efficient management like every other organisation in order to satisfy members’ and clients’ needs.

Nonprofit organizations emerge because markets or the state can fail to supply certain goods and services or because of people's needs for social interaction, political, cultural or charitable activities for which NPOs offer a platform.

The Nonprofit sector covers a wide range of organisations: trade unions, employers’ association, chambers, co-operatives, federations, churches, foundations, political parties or social, philanthropic, cultural or leisure organizations.


As these organizations have a dominant nonprofit purpose, key financial indicators such as turnover or profits are just one part of the performance measurement. More important is to measure the performance according to their members’ needs and its overarching vision, what makes managing them particularly challenging.

This comprehensive management model was originally developed in 1986/87 as a conceptual basis for a postgraduate course in associations and nonprofit management. For the past 40 years the model was continuously extended and was published in 2015 in the 8th edition. The Fribourg Management Model for NPO (FMM) and its extension volumes provide a systematic introduction to the topic of nonprofit management. Its holistic approach conveys the basics and offers a framework for understanding NPO management challenges and potential solutions. Therefore, the model serves as a conceptual framework for all of the VMI’s further education courses.

An English translation of the FMM will be published in 2016.